Japanese Tattoo Tradition in a Modern World
MARCH 8 – SEPTEMBER 14, 2014
About the Exhibition
Perseverance: Japanese Tattoo Tradition in a Modern World explores the artistry of traditional Japanese tattoos along with its rich history and influence on modern tattoo practices in this groundbreaking photographic exhibition.
As Japanese tattoos have moved into the mainstream, the artistry and legacy of Japanese tattooing remain both enigmatic and misunderstood. Often copied by practitioners and aficionados in the West without regard to its rich history, symbolism, or tradition, the art form is commonly reduced to a visual or exotic caricature. Conversely, mainstream Japanese culture still dismisses the subject itself as underground, associating it more with some of its clientele than with the artists practicing it. Both of these mindsets ignore the vast artistry and rich history of the practice.
Although tattooing is largely seen as an underground activity in Japan, Japanese tattoo artists have pursued their passions, applied their skills, and have risen to become internationally acclaimed artists. Through the endurance and dedication of these tattoo artists, Japanese tattooing has also persevered and is now internationally renowned for its artistry, lineage, historical symbolism, and skill.
Curated by Takahiro Kitamura and photographed and designed by Kip Fulbeck, Perseverance is a groundbreaking exhibition and the first of its kind. Perseverance will explore Japanese tattooing as an art form by acknowledging its roots in ukiyo-e prints. This exhibition will also examine current practices and offshoots of Japanese tattooing in the U.S. and Japan.
Perseverance features the work of seven internationally acclaimed tattoo artists, Horitaka, Horitomo, Chris Horishiki Brand, Miyazo, Shige, Junii, and Yokohama Horiken, along with tattoo works by selected others. Through the display of a variety of photographs, including life-sized pictures of full body tattoos, these artists will cover a broad spectrum of the current world of Japanese tattooing.
Mariko Gordon and Hugh Cosman
UCSB Academic Senate
UCSB Department of Art
The Japan Foundation, Los Angeles
Los Angeles County Arts Commission
Atsuhiko and Ina Goodwin Tateuchi Foundation
By Liz Ohanesian
On Saturday afternoon, four tattoo artists went to work inside Little Tokyo’s Japanese American National Museum for the opening of “Perseverance: Japanese Tattoo Tradition in the Modern World.” They spent hours taking ink and needles to flesh, adding to the large, detailed illustrations that already marked their client’s bodies. Crowds gathered and dispersed throughout the day, watching with interest.
Most seemed unfazed by the buzz of tattoo machines. Many of the onlookers here have gone through a similar process. Some had tattooed sleeves that crawled out from under t-shirts. Others had art that peeked out above collar lines or below hems.
Instead, it was two of those tattoo artists working in silence at their stations who could provoke a wince from the crowd. They were practicing tebori. That’s the traditional Japanese way of applying tattoos. In other words, they were using equipment that wasn’t motorized. The artists dipped their instruments into ink before poking repeatedly at patches of skin on their clients. One lay on his back, an arm crossed over his eyes. His stomach moved with breaths that grew deeper as the prodding persisted. Another remained still on his stomach. From certain angles, you could catch the tension creases form on his face.
Tebori is an old-fashioned way of tattooing, but it’s not antiquated. Takahiro Kitamura, known as Horitaka in tattoo circles, is the curator of “Perseverance.” He notes that there are still plenty of tebori practitioners at work. Many of them choose to use machines to outline the tattoos, he says, but they’ll still use their hands for shading. It’s more than an adherence to tradition. He notes that some believe working by hand makes for a better, longer-lasting tattoo.
“Perseverance” is an unusual show in that it both documents and celebrates the art of Japanese tattoos, as well as the impact this style of body art has had globally. Tattoos date back to Japan’s ancient history, but flourished during the Edo period. Despite an extensive history, tattoos in Japan aren’t mainstream. In fact, many who have traveled to the country have reported of signs that ban people with tattoos from certain institutions. Even in the U.S., where body art is relatively commonplace, the Japanese style is extreme in comparison to everyday tattoos. These are not your typical daisy on the ankle. Some people invest in full bodysuits. Others may stick with the trunk of the body or limbs.
According to Horitaka, one of the major misconceptions about Japanese tattoos is that they aren’t “fine art.” Tattoos have some similarities with other traditional Japanese art forms that have found homes in museums. Take the names of the artists as an example. A number of the tattoo artists here are known by names that use the prefix “hori.” Horitaka explains that this word means “to dig or carve” and notes that woodblock prints are often signed by artists whose names also begin with “hori.” It is, he says, something that tattoo artists adopted from wood carvers.
In curating this exhibition, Horitaka is challenging the misconceptions about tattoos. Artist and professor Kip Fulbeck photographed numerous human canvases bearing the work of the best artists in the field. Horitaka selected photos that zoomed in on the art, juxtaposing those with full-sized portraits of the people who wear the tattoos. The goal was to explore the diversity within the Japanese tattoo tradition, while making the show as much about the people as it is about the art. It’s a massive collaboration between the curator, the photographer/designer, the tattoo artists and their clients. For the opening day festivities, many of the clients turned up – some traveling to L.A. from Japan – to model work that can take months, even years, to complete.
Shawn McHenry and Chad Sachman, both from Rancho Cucamonga, are both clients of Inland Empire tattoo artist Espi. They were amongst the models at the exhibition’s opening event. McHenry has a full back tattoo. It took about a year to get that done. He also has work on his leg that’s been in progress for two-and-a-half years. His tattoos tell the story of Kintaro, a folklore hero, and his encounter with a large carp. It’s a tale that relates to McHenry’s work. He owns a koi fish shop and got into the business when he was barely an adult. “If you’re foolish and blind and just want to do it,” he says of the story’s message, “you can succeed.”
Horitaka says that tattoos almost always tell a story. Those may be based in folklore, religion or history. You’ll see narratives unfold down the back, below the buttocks and onto the upper thighs. They might scroll down arms or across the chest.
As Japanese tattoos have increased in popularity, the stories they tell have changed as well. “We’re in a world of fusion now,” says Kitamura. Time-honored tales aren’t the only ones told on skin. Chris “Horishiki” Brand is an artist at Good Time Charlie’s in Anaheim. He’s also part of the L.A.-based art collective UGLAR. For this exhibition, he presented 108 Heroes of Los Angeles. It’s a retelling of Shui Hu Zhuan, a Chinese novel that later made its way to Japan, where it’s known as Suikoden. In this series of tattoos, Brand merges Japanese and Chicano art in a story of rebellion. Photos of the tattoo piece are exhibited in the museum.
Undoubtedly, with narrative-based pieces as involved as these, getting a Japanese-style tattoo requires a serious commitment. Shawn McHenry once went through three days in a row of tattoo sessions, with each one clocking in at about 12 hours. “It got to the point where we would have to stop because of the smell of flesh,” he says.
He says that there is an endorphin rush that comes with being tattooed. That, however, can wear off when you’re in the lengthy sessions that occur with large pieces. He says that, at a certain point, the pain stays in a specific part of the body. It doesn’t move with the needle. Chad Sachman agrees with that sentiment. Last week, he had work done on his lower back, over the spine. “I was actually feeling the pain in my knee,” he says.
As for the artists, their work requires constant study. Horitaka, who owns a tattoo shop in San Jose, spent several years as an apprentice in the U.S. and another decade studying under a Japanese tattoo master. Although he works solo now, he’s not done learning. He says, “I think I’m always going to be a student of the Japanese tattoo.”
What’s up at this very moment? We still have no access to the collection. There are no artists working in the museum, and the shop is declared a no-go area for the tattoo world. A small group of big shots out of the real museum world and university are negotiating the release of the collection. But the schizo character of the opposite side makes it difficult. We have good hope and are already looking for a new location. Soon we will open up a temporary location for our merchandise and office somewhere in town. Meanwhile, your support is much appreciated and needed. Stay away the fuck away from the museum! It’s not ours anymore, it’s now in the hands of un-tattooed people!
Thanks to everybody who has been incredible generous and has been donating to our funds!
Henk Schiffmacher and crew…
(Courtesy of The Board of the Foundation Amsterdam Tattoo Museum)
As you all know, the museum was struggling to survive. During the last weeks lots and lots of people from all over the world expressed their support. Many people, shops and companies even showed their strong commitment by giving a financial contribution to push the museum through these difficult times. The response was heartwarming! We incredibly appreciated the many thousands of messages on Instagram, Facebook, etc.
At this time, we are proud to inform you that we (partly due to the continuous pressure from the tattoo world) are in process of reaching an agreement with our business partner Partners aan het werk. We expect the contract for a three year partnership to be signed early next week… (more…)
First of all we are overwhelmed by the support we’re receiving from all over the world! We can’t thank you enough. Here’s a little history about the museum. What happened, and how come it is like it is now…
Henk’s been collecting tattoo related stuff for over 35 years, he knows a lot about the history and is very passionate about the legacy. Especially nowadays, when about everyone can buy a tattoo machine from the Internet and start tattooing without knowing shit… (more…)
Henk Schiffmacher May Own Tattoo Museum No Longer
(Original story from De Stentor) [Editor's Note: This story originally appears in Dutch and is loosely translated into English via Google Translate.]
Amsterdam, Nov. 22nd, 2012 – By a high sustained financial conflict Henk Schiffmacher access to its own Amsterdam Tattoo Museum denied. It has famous Dutch tattoo artist and artist Thursday… (more…)
Comrades at arms!
It is been overwhelming, we’re blown away by the enormous support we’ve had the last 24 hours. Never before in my whole history as a tattoo artist I’ve come across such an enormous exposition of positive energy. Reactions worldwide, tweets and retweets, pictures on Instagram, posts on Facebook, etc. It’s a tough fight, but we’re in to win this.
Again today we were denied access to our museum. Locks have been changed, negotiations with the police to get personal matters like tattoo machines were necessary. A tidal wave of local and national press were served all day. Negotiations with landlords, lawyers and businessmen took place. Do not despair my friend. We will fight this with success. Stay tuned!
P.S. Lawsuit is about 1.5 million Euros and has no ground at all. Come see us on December 8th. Help us fight for our art, fight for our history, fight for our future, fight for our museum!
How can you help us?
- First of all, keep spreading the word!
- Make a donation on PayPal, big or small at email@example.com.
- Make a tattoo for the museum, donate, take a picture and participate in the 1000 tattoos for the Amsterdam Tattoo Museum competition
- Sing a song on YouTube
- Make a “Save The ATM” t-shirt
- Bake cookies
- Throw a party
- Become a member of the Blue Bone Society
- Put us in your will
- Sell your body
- Throw us a gig
- Rob a bank
- Organize an auction
- Participate in the December 2nd worldwide Tattoos for History day in participation with www.tattooplatform.nl.
Keep up the fight!
Yours truly, Hanky Panky, Louise, Annemarie & Tessa…
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The Amsterdam Tattoo Museum aims to be the home for the art and history of worldwide skin culture. Located in two 19th-century villas, it houses an extensive permanent exhibition about the tattooing of yesterday, today and tomorrow in all its aspects and forms.
Check out the museum’s upcoming book releases and catalog here: http://issuu.com/kitpublishers/docs/brochure_atmpublishing (more…)